J Alzheimers Dis. 2017;60(1):225-233. doi: 10.3233/JAD-170257.
Decreased Glucose Metabolism in Medial Prefrontal Areas is Associated with Nutritional Status in Patients with Prodromal and Early Alzheimer's Disease.
BACKGROUND: Weight loss is frequently observed in patients with Alzheimer's disease (AD); however, the underlying mechanisms are not well understood.
OBJECTS: To clarify the associations between nutritional status and AD-related brain changes using Pittsburgh Compound-B (PiB)-PET, fluorodeoxyglucose (FDG)-PET, and structural MRI.
METHODS: The subjects were 34 amyloid-β (Aβ)-positive individuals with mild cognitive impairment or early AD (prodromal/early AD), and 55 Aβ-negative cognitively normal (CN) subjects who attended the Multimodal Neuroimaging for AD Diagnosis (MULNIAD) study. Nutritional status of the subjects was assessed by body mass index and waist to height ratio (waist circumference/height). The associations between nutritional status and brain changes were examined by multiple regression analysis using statistical parametric mapping.
RESULTS: In the prodromal/early AD group, nutritional status was significantly positively correlated with regional cerebral glucose metabolism (rCGM) in the medial prefrontal cortices, while different topographical associations were seen in the CN group, suggesting these changes were AD-specific. Aβ deposition and gray matter volume were not significantly associated with nutritional status. Sub-analysis in the prodromal/early AD group demonstrated that fat mass index, but not fat-free mass index, was positively correlated with rCGM in the medial prefrontal areas.
CONCLUSION: This present study provides preliminary results suggesting that hypometabolism in the medial prefrontal areas is specifically associated with AD-related weight loss, and decrease in fat mass may have a key role.