J Nutr Health Aging. 2016 Apr;20(4):383-90. doi: 10.1007/s12603-016-0715-0.
Age-related Changes in Energy Intake and Weight in Community-dwelling Middle-aged and Elderly Japanese.
OBJECTIVE: This study attempts to describe trends in energy intake and weight change over 12 years according to age at first participation in the study.
DESIGN: Prospective cohort study.
SETTING: The National Institute for Longevity Sciences - Longitudinal Study of Aging (NILS-LSA), a community-based study.
PARTICIPANTS: Participants included 922 men and 879 women who participated in the first study-wave (age 40-79 years) and also participated in at least one study-wave from the second to seventh study-wave. Each study-wave was conducted biennially. For individuals, the entire follow-up period was 12 years.
MEASUREMENTS: Energy intake was calculated from 3-day dietary records with photographs. Weight and height were measured under a fasting state. To estimate linear changes in energy intake and weight over 12 years according to age at first study-wave, we used the mixed-effects model.
RESULTS: Mean (SD) follow-up time and number of study-wave visits were 9.5 (3.7)
years and 5.4 (1.8) times, respectively. The fixed effect of the interaction of age and time in energy intake and weight was statistically or marginally statistically significant both in men (p<0.01) and in women (p<0.06). In men, when energy intake was estimated according to age, the rate of decrease in energy intake increased from -6.8 to -33.8 kcal/year for ages 40-79 years. In women, the rate of decrease in energy intake slightly increased in older age groups (-9.1 to -16.7 kcal/year for ages 40-79 years). Weight increased in males in their 40s (0.07 kg/year from age 40) and started to decline by age 53. In women, weight started to decline around age 47 (-0.04 kg/year).
CONCLUSION: Twelve-year longitudinal data showed energy intake declined both in men and women in their 40s, and the rate of decrease increased in older males. Weight started to decline in men in their mid-50s and women in their late 40s. Further studies that focus on energy intake and weight reduction are needed to prevent weight loss or underweight in an increasingly aging society.