Summary

Mol Genet Metab Rep. 2016 Nov 18;9:98-105. eCollection 2016 Dec.

Divergent clinical outcomes of alpha-glucosidase enzyme replacement therapy in two siblings with infantile-onset Pompe disease treated in the symptomatic or pre-symptomatic state.

Abstract:

Pompe disease is an autosomal recessive, lysosomal glycogen storage disease caused by acid α-glucosidase deficiency. Infantile-onset Pompe disease (IOPD) is the most severe form and is characterized by cardiomyopathy, respiratory distress, hepatomegaly, and skeletal muscle weakness. Untreated, IOPD generally results in death within the first year of life. Enzyme replacement therapy (ERT) with recombinant human acid alpha glucosidase (rhGAA) has been shown to markedly improve the life expectancy of patients with IOPD. However, the efficacy of ERT in patients with IOPD is affected by the presence of symptoms and cross-reactive immunologic material (CRIM) status. We have treated two siblings with IOPD with ERT at different ages: the first was symptomatic and the second was asymptomatic. The female proband (Patient 1) was diagnosed with IOPD and initiated ERT at 4 months of age. Her younger sister (Patient 2) was diagnosed with IOPD at 10 days of age and initiated ERT at Day 12. Patient 1, now 6 years old, is alive but bedridden, and requires 24-hour invasive ventilation due to gradually progressive muscle weakness. In Patient 2, typical symptoms of IOPD, including cardiac failure, respiratory distress, progressive muscle weakness, hepatomegaly and myopathic facial features were largely absent during the first 12 months of ERT. Her cardiac function and mobility were well-maintained for the first 3 years, and she had normal motor development. However, she developed progressive hearing impairment and muscle weakness after 3 years of ERT. Both siblings have had low anti-rhGAA immunoglobulin G (IgG) antibody titers during ERT and have tolerated the treatment well. These results suggest that initiation of ERT during the pre-symptomatic period can prevent and/or attenuate the progression of IOPD, including cardiomyopathy, respiratory distress, and muscle weakness for first several years of ERT. However, to improve the long-term efficacy of ERT for IOPD, new strategies for ERT for IOPD, e.g. modifying the enzyme to enhance uptake into skeletal muscle and/or to cross the blood brain barrier (BBB), will be required.

日本語要旨:

2例の乳幼児期発症のポンペ病(IOPD)における酵素補充療法(ERT)の効果について報告した。IOPD患者は未治療の場合生後1年以内に死亡する。一方、本報告において生後4か月からERTを施行された患者は6歳時においてもベッドから起き上がる事は出来ないが生存していた。生後10日目からERTを施行された2例目は3歳時より筋力低下を示したがそれ以前は無症状であった。 以上の2例の結果は、生後早い時期からのERTは数年間IOPDの症状を予防、軽減するのに有効であることを示している。しかし、さらに長期間ERTの効果を継続させるには、酵素の筋への取り込みの増強が必要と考えられる。

PMID:  27896132

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