Seizure. 2010 Jun;19(5):274-9. doi: 10.1016/j.seizure.2010.04.003. Epub 2010 May 8.
Abnormal maturation of non-dysmorphic neurons in focal cortical dysplasia: immunohistochemical considerations.
AIM: Dysmorphic neurons and balloon cells in focal cortical dysplasia (FCD) reportedly show immaturity and abnormal differentiation with neuronal and glial components. Although normal-looking neurons (NL-neurons) in FCD are major constituent elements, their biological characteristics have never been identified. The aim of this study was to investigate maturation of NL-neurons with the focus on neuronal developmental lineage.
METHODS: Eighteen FCD surgical specimens and controls were examined immunohistochemically using the antibodies for nestin, mammalian achaete-scute complex homolog 1 (Mash1), prospero-related homeobox 1 (Prox1), neuron-specific beta-III tubulin (Tuj1) and microtubule-associated protein 2 (MAP2) of neuronal lineage, glutamic acid decarboxylase (GAD), calretinin (CR) and calbindin (CB) of interneuron markers, and glial fibrillary-acidic protein (GFAP) of glial cell marker. Additionally, we performed fluorescent-double staining with these markers, and semi-quantitative analysis.
RESULTS: NL-neurons in FCD had both mature and immature components, without interneuron components. NL-neurons in FCD showed abnormal maturation with the combined expression of MAP2 and Mash1/Prox1. Prox1-containing cell distribution in the deep layer was different from that of Mash1-containing cells in the superficial area. The MAP2-containing cell concentration decreased in the order of type I-A, I-B, II-A and II-B, but the Tuj1-containing cell concentration increased.
CONCLUSION: These findings may reflect differences in neuronal function and expression timing in developmental stages. From the standpoint of molecular expression, abnormal maturation of NL-neurons may initiate synaptic dysfunction, resulting in intractable seizures of FCD.