J Clin Endocrinol Metab. 2010 Aug;95(8):4056-60. doi: 10.1210/jc.2010-0055. Epub 2010 May 19.
Autoimmune diabetes in HIV-infected patients on highly active antiretroviral therapy.
CONTEXT: Various autoimmune diseases, especially autoimmune thyroid disease, are known to occur in HIV-infected patients on highly active antiretroviral therapy (HAART). However, no reports have described the development of autoimmune diabetes during HAART.
OBJECTIVE: Our objective was to investigate the clinical course of the development of autoantibodies and diabetes during HAART.
PATIENTS AND METHODS: Based on their high antiislet autoantibody titers and requirement for insulin therapy, we diagnosed three HIV-infected patients with autoimmune diabetes. To clarify the relationship between the development of an autoimmune reaction against pancreatic beta-cells and recovery of CD4+ T lymphocyte (CD4) counts, we retrospectively assayed stored samples of the patients' plasma for antiglutamic acid decarboxylase antibody (GAD-Ab).
RESULTS: No GAD-Ab was detected in the plasma samples of any of the three patients prior to HAART, and their CD4 counts were below 20 cells/microl at their nadir. The GAD-Ab tests became positive from 6 to 38 months after the start of HAART, and their conversion to positive followed a dramatic increase in the patients' CD4 count. Two patients developed diabetes after testing positive for GAD-Ab. Although one patient had mild diabetes prior to testing positive for GAD-Ab, the rapid worsening of glycemic control and introduction of insulin therapy almost coincided with the detection of GAD-Ab. The high magnitude of the CD4 increase during HAART and the timing of the detection of autoantibody were similar to the magnitude and timing reported in HAART-associated autoimmune thyroid disease.
CONCLUSIONS: Autoimmune diabetes develops in some HIV-infected patients after immune restoration during HAART.