J Neuropathol Exp Neurol. 2012 Aug;71(8):741-9.
Delayed maturation and differentiation of neurons in focal cortical dysplasia with the transmantle sign: analysis of layer-specific marker expression.
Transmantle dysplasia is a rare type of focal cortical dysplasia (FCD) characterized by expansion of the cortex from the deep white matter to the surface and in which there is a FCD IIA or IIB pathologic pattern. To characterize possible mechanisms underlying this regional disorder of radial migrating cells, we studied the expression patterns of neocortical layer-specific markers using immunohistochemistry in surgical specimens from 5 FCD IIA and 4 FCD IIB cases in children. All neuronal cells expressed the mature neuron marker MAP2/2B but not the microglia markers Iba-1 and CD68. Some layer-specific markers showed distinct expression patterns. TBR1-positive, SATB2-positive, and FOXP1-positive cells were diffusely distributed in the cortex and/or the white matter. TBR1-positive and FOXP1-positive cells were generally more numerous in FCD IIB than in FCD IIA and were mostly in the cortical molecular and upper layers. FOXP1-, FOXP2-, and CUTL1-positive cells also expressed the immature neuron marker, Nestin/PROX1, whereas TBR1-, CTIP2-, and SATB2-positive cells only expressed MAP2/2B. These data highlight differences between FCD IIB and FCD IIA with more cells having the immature marker in upper layer markers in the former. By analyzing layer-specific marker expression patterns, we identified apparent neuronal maturation differences between FCD IIA and FCD IIB in cases of transmantle dysplasia.