Clin Microbiol Infect. 2013 Jun;19(6):E263-70. doi: 10.1111/1469-0691.12167. Epub 2013 Mar 11.
Restriction fragment mass polymorphism (RFMP) analysis based on MALDI-TOF mass spectrometry for detecting antiretroviral resistance in HIV-1 infected patients.
Viral genotype assessment is important for effective clinical management of HIV-1 infected patients, especially when access and/or adherence to antiretroviral treatment is reduced. In this study, we describe development of a matrix-assisted laser desorption/ionization-time of flight mass spectrometry-based viral genotyping assay, termed restriction fragment mass polymorphism (RFMP). This assay is suitable for sensitive, specific and high-throughput detection of multiple drug-resistant HIV-1 variants. One hundred serum samples from 60 HIV-1-infected patients previously exposed to nucleoside reverse transcriptase inhibitors (NRTIs), non-nucleoside reverse transcriptase inhibitors (NNRTIs) and protease inhibitors (PIs) were analysed for the presence of drug-resistant viruses using the RFMP and direct sequencing assays. Probit analysis predicted a detection limit of 223.02 copies/mL for the RFMP assay and 1268.11 copies/mL for the direct sequencing assays using HIV-1 RNA Positive Quality Control Series. The concordance rates between the RFMP and direct sequencing assays for the examined codons were 97% (K65R), 97% (T69Ins/D), 97% (L74VI), 97% (K103N), 96% (V106AM), 97% (Q151M), 97% (Y181C), 97% (M184VI) and 94% (T215YF) in the reverse transcriptase coding region, and 100% (D30N), 100% (M46I), 100% (G48V), 100% (I50V), 100% (I54LS), 99% (V82A), 99% (I84V) and 100% (L90M) in the protease coding region. Defined mixtures were consistently and accurately identified by RFMP at 5% relative concentration of mutant to wild-type virus while at 20% or greater by direct sequencing. The RFMP assay based on mass spectrometry proved to be sensitive, accurate and reliable for monitoring the emergence and early detection of HIV-1 genotypic variants that lead to drug resistance.