FASEB J. 2013 Aug;27(8):3198-208. doi: 10.1096/fj.12-222745. Epub 2013 May 6.

Human glutathione S-transferase A (GSTA) family genes are regulated by steroidogenic factor 1 (SF-1) and are involved in steroidogenesis.


Steroidogenic factor 1 (SF-1) is a master regulator for steroidogenesis. In this study, we identified novel SF-1 target genes using a genome-wide promoter tiling array and a DNA microarray. SF-1 was found to regulate human glutathione S-transferase A (GSTA) family genes (hGSTA1-hGSTA4), a superfamily of detoxification enzymes clustered on chromosome 6p12. All hGSTA genes were up-regulated by transduction of SF-1 into human mesenchymal stem cells, while knockdown of endogenous SF-1 in H295R cells down-regulated all hGSTA genes. Chromatin immunoprecipitation assays, however, revealed that SF-1 bound directly to the promoters of hGSTA3 and weakly of hGSTA4. Chromosome conformation capture assays revealed that the coordinated expression of the genes was based on changes in higher-order chromatin structure triggered by SF-1, which enables the formation of long-range interactions, at least between hGSTA1 and hGSTA3 gene promoters. In steroidogenesis, dehydrogenation of the 3-hydroxy group and subsequent Δ(5)-Δ(4) isomerization are thought to be enzymatic properties of 3β-hydroxysteroid dehydrogenase (3β-HSD). Here, we demonstrated that, in steroidogenic cells, the hGSTA1 and hGSTA3 gene products catalyze Δ(5)-Δ(4) isomerization in a coordinated fashion with 3β-HSD II to produce progesterone or Δ(4)-androstenedione from their Δ(5)-precursors. Thus, hGSTA1 and hGSTA3 gene products are new members of steroidogenesis working as Δ(5)-Δ(4) isomerases.



PMID:  23650189