Am J Hum Genet. 2013 Jul 11;93(1):6-18. doi: 10.1016/j.ajhg.2013.05.004. Epub 2013 Jun 6.

Mutations in KLHL40 are a frequent cause of severe autosomal-recessive nemaline myopathy.


Nemaline myopathy (NEM) is a common congenital myopathy. At the very severe end of the NEM clinical spectrum are genetically unresolved cases of autosomal-recessive fetal akinesia sequence. We studied a multinational cohort of 143 severe-NEM-affected families lacking genetic diagnosis. We performed whole-exome sequencing of six families and targeted gene sequencing of additional families. We identified 19 mutations in KLHL40 (kelch-like family member 40) in 28 apparently unrelated NEM kindreds of various ethnicities. Accounting for up to 28% of the tested individuals in the Japanese cohort, KLHL40 mutations were found to be the most common cause of this severe form of NEM. Clinical features of affected individuals were severe and distinctive and included fetal akinesia or hypokinesia and contractures, fractures, respiratory failure, and swallowing difficulties at birth. Molecular modeling suggested that the missense substitutions would destabilize the protein. Protein studies showed that KLHL40 is a striated-muscle-specific protein that is absent in KLHL40-associated NEM skeletal muscle. In zebrafish, klhl40a and klhl40b expression is largely confined to the myotome and skeletal muscle, and knockdown of these isoforms results in disruption of muscle structure and loss of movement. We identified KLHL40 mutations as a frequent cause of severe autosomal-recessive NEM and showed that it plays a key role in muscle development and function. Screening of KLHL40 should be a priority in individuals who are affected by autosomal-recessive NEM and who present with prenatal symptoms and/or contractures and in all Japanese individuals with severe NEM.


ネマリンミオパチー未診断例6家系を対象に全エクソームシークエンス解析を行い、 KLHL40遺伝子に変異を見出した。追加家系を含む全143家系のうち、28家系に19の異なる変異を見出した。特に日本人患者 コーホートにおいては、28%の患者でKHLH40変異が見出され、乳児重症型ネマリンミオパチーの最も頻度の高い原因遺伝子である ことが判明した。

PMID:  23746549