PLoS One. 2014 Jan 31;9(1):e87596. doi: 10.1371/journal.pone.0087596. eCollection 2014.
Traditional but not HIV-related factors are associated with nonalcoholic fatty liver disease in Asian patients with HIV-1 infection.
BACKGROUND: The prevalence and factors associated with nonalcoholic fatty liver disease (NAFLD) are largely unknown in HIV-1 monoinfected patients.
METHODS: The present study elucidated the prevalence and factors associated with NAFLD among Asian patients with HIV-1 infection who underwent abdominal ultrasonography between January 2004 and March 2013. Diagnosis of NAFLD was based on the liver to kidney contrast and diffusion in hepatic echogenicity. Uni- and multi-variate logistic regression analyses were applied to estimate factors associated with NAFLD.
RESULTS: 435 Asian patients free of chronic hepatitis B or C virus infection and without excessive alcohol intake were analyzed. NAFLD was diagnosed in 135 (31%) patients. Obesity (BMI >30 kg/m(2)) was evident in 18 (4.1%) patients, and BMI was >25 kg/m(2) in 103 (24%). Multivariate analysis identified higher BMI (per 1 kg/m(2) increment, adjusted OR = 1.198; 95% CI, 1.112-1.290; p<0.001), dyslipidemia (adjusted OR = 2.045; 95% CI, 1.183-3.538; p = 0.010), and higher ALT to AST ratio (per 1 increment, adjusted OR = 3.557; 95% CI, 2.129-5.941; p<0.001) as significant factors associated with NAFLD. No HIV-specific variables, including treatment with dideoxynucleoside analogues (didanosine, stavudine, and zalcitabine) and cumulative duration of antiretroviral therapy (ART), were associated with NAFLD.
CONCLUSIONS: The incidence of NALFD among Asian patients with HIV-1 infection is similar to that in Western countries. NAFLD was associated with high BMI, dyslipidemia, and high ALT/AST ratio, but not with HIV-related factors. The results highlight the importance of early recognition and management of NAFLD and traditional factors associated with NAFLD for Asian patients with HIV-1 infection.