Brain Dev. 2015 Aug;37(7):719-24. doi: 10.1016/j.braindev.2014.10.013. Epub 2014 Nov 18.
Myocerebrohepatopathy spectrum disorder due to POLG mutations: A clinicopathological report.
We report on the clinical, neuropathological, and genetic findings of a Japanese case with myocerebrohepatopathy spectrum (MCHS) disorder due to polymerase gamma (POLG) mutations. A girl manifested poor sucking and failure to thrive since 4 months of age and had frequent vomiting and developmental regression at 5 months of age. She showed significant hypotonia and hepatomegaly. Laboratory tests showed hepatocellular dysfunction and elevated protein and lactate levels in the cerebrospinal fluid. Her liver function and neurologic condition exacerbated, and she died at 8 months of age. At autopsy, fatty degeneration and fibrosis were observed in the liver. Neuropathological examination revealed white matter-predominant spongy changes with Alzheimer type II glia and loss of myelin. Enzyme activities of the respiratory chain complex I, III, and IV relative to citrate synthase in the muscle were normal in the biopsied muscle tissue, but they were reduced in the liver to 0%, 10%, and 14% of normal values, respectively. In the liver, the copy number of mitochondrial DNA compared to nuclear DNA was reduced to 3.3% of normal values as evaluated by quantitative polymerase chain reaction. Genetic analysis revealed compound heterozygous mutations for POLG (I1185T/A957V). This case represents the differential involvement of multiple organs and phenotype-specific distribution of brain lesions in mitochondrial DNA depletion disorders.