Brain Dev. 2015 Oct;37(9):887-90. doi: 10.1016/j.braindev.2015.02.002. Epub 2015 Feb 24.
Nemaline myopathy with KLHL40 mutation presenting as congenital totally locked-in state.
We report a case of nemaline myopathy with KLHL40 mutation, presenting as congenital totally locked-in state. At birth, a male patient developed hydrops fetalis, which was diagnosed based on the generalized edema and pleural effusion and could perform no significant spontaneous movements. His eyes were open, without blinking, and the eyeballs were locked in the midposition. He could not express his intentions by vocalization or moving his trunk, extremities, facial muscles, mouth, eyelids, or eyeballs in response to ambient events or personal interactions. Electrophysiological tests and neuroimaging revealed no evidence of visual or auditory impairment that might indicate a lack of sensory perception, and no evidence of impaired consciousness or intellectual disorder(s) that might prevent him from recognizing ambient events or expressing his intentions. He subsequently died at 4 years of age. Our case highlights the fact that severe congenital neuromuscular disorders can present as congenital totally locked-in state, and that special attention should be provided to these patients.