Diabet Med. 2016 Dec;33(12):1717-1722. doi: 10.1111/dme.13175. Epub 2016 Jul 15.
Variants associated with autoimmune Type 1 diabetes in Japanese children: implications for age-specific effects of cis-regulatory haplotypes at 17q12-q21.
AIMS: The aim of this study was to clarify the significance of previously reported susceptibility variants in the development of autoimmune Type 1 diabetes in non-white children. Tested variants included rs2290400, which has been linked to Type 1 diabetes only in one study on white people. Haplotypes at 17q12-q21 encompassing rs2290400 are known to determine the susceptibility of early-onse asthma by affecting the expression of flanking genes.
METHODS: We genotyped 63 variants in 428 Japanese people with childhood-onset autoimmune Type 1 diabetes and 457 individuals without diabetes. Possible association between variants and age at diabetes onset was examined using age-specific quantitative trait locus analysis and ordered-subset regression analysis.
RESULTS: Ten variants, including rs2290400 in GSDMB, were more frequent among the people with Type 1 diabetes than those without diabetes. Of these, rs689 in INS and rs231775 in CTLA4 yielded particularly high odds ratios of 5.58 (corrected P value 0.001; 95% CI 2.15-14.47) and 1.64 (corrected P value 5.3 × 10(-5) ; 95% CI 1.34-2.01), respectively. Age-specific effects on diabetes susceptibility were suggested for rs2290400; heterozygosity of the risk alleles was associated with relatively early onset of diabetes, and the allele was linked to the phenotype exclusively in the subgroup of age at onset ≤ 5.0 years.
CONCLUSIONS: The results indicate that rs2290400 in GSDMB and polymorphisms in INS and CTLA4 are associated with the risk of Type 1 diabetes in Japanese children. Importantly, cis-regulatory haplotypes at 17q12-q21 encompassing rs2290400 probably determine the risk of autoimmune Type 1 diabetes predominantly in early childhood.