Genes Chromosomes Cancer. 2017 Oct;56(10):711-718. doi: 10.1002/gcc.22469. Epub 2017 Jul 27.
Highly recurrent H3F3A mutations with additional epigenetic regulator alterations in giant cell tumor of bone.
Recurrent H3F3A and IDH2 mutations have been reported in giant cell tumor of bone (GCTB). However, the reported incidences have varied, and other molecular genetic alterations have not been identified due to the small number of cases analyzed with comprehensive methods. Moreover, the relative sensitivities of Sanger sequencing and next-generation sequencing (NGS) for the detection of H3F3A mutations in DNA extracted from archival formalin-fixed paraffin-embedded (FFPE) samples for clinical diagnosis have not been assessed. To address these issues, we conducted whole-exome sequencing of 7 GCTBs and integrated the previously published genomic sequencing data of 6 GCTBs. We subsequently performed targeted sequencing of an additional 39 GCTBs, including 2 atypical cases and an extremely rare case of primary malignant transformation of GCTB. We also evaluated the sensitivity of Sanger sequencing for detecting H3F3A mutations in FFPE samples that are usually used for clinical diagnosis. H3F3A glycine hotspot mutations were the most frequently detected mutations (96%) in the 52 GCTBs by NGS. Of the 50 hotspot mutations, p.G34W was observed in 48 cases and p.G34L/G34R was detected in one. One of two atypical GCTB cases with wild-type H3F3A had a H3F3B mutation (p.G34V). Other mutated genes were not recurrent. Sanger sequencing did not detect H3F3A mutations in 10 of 15 H3F3A NGS mutation-positive FFPE samples. In conclusion, we confirmed that H3F3A is the most frequently mutated GCTB driver gene, and that H3F3A mutations are not present in atypical GCTBs. Sanger sequencing was much less sensitive than targeted NGS for detecting H3F3A mutations in FFPE samples.