Brain Dev. 2018 Feb;40(2):134-139. doi: 10.1016/j.braindev.2017.08.003. Epub 2017 Oct 12.
Biallelic mutations in SZT2 cause a discernible clinical entity with epilepsy, developmental delay, macrocephaly and a dysmorphic corpus callosum.
Mutations in SZT2 were first reported in 2013 as a cause of early-onset epileptic encephalopathy. Because only five reports have been published to date, the clinical features associated with SZT2 remain unclear. We herein report an additional patient with biallelic mutations in SZT2. The proband, a four-year-old girl, showed developmental delay and seizures from two years of age. Her seizures were not intractable and readily controlled by valproate. She showed mildly dysmorphic facies with macrocephaly, high forehead, and hypertelorism, and also had pectus carinatum. An EEG showed epileptic discharges which rarely occurred. A brain MRI revealed a short and thick corpus callosum. Whole-exome sequencing detected compound heterozygous biallelic mutations (c.8596dup (p.Tyr2866Leufs∗42) and c.2930-17_2930-3delinsCTCGTG) in SZT2, both of which were novel and predicted to be truncating. This case suggested a broad phenotypic spectrum arises from SZT2 mutations, forming a continuum from epileptic encephalopathy and severe developmental delay to mild intellectual disability without epilepsy. The characteristic thick and short corpus callosum observed in 7/8 cases with epilepsy, including the proband, but not in three non-syndromic cases, appears to be specific, and thus useful for indicating the possibility of SZT2 mutations. This feature has the potential to make loss of SZT2 a clinically discernible disorder despite a wide clinical spectrum.