Oncotarget. 2018 Apr 20;9(30):21086-21099. doi: 10.18632/oncotarget.24930. eCollection 2018 Apr 20.
Establishment of preclinical chemotherapy models for gastroenteropancreatic neuroendocrine carcinoma.
Gastroenteropancreatic neuroendocrine carcinoma (GEP-NEC) is a rare and devastating malignancy, and preclinical studies are needed to evaluate potential therapeutic regimens. Here, we examined the antitumor effects of cisplatin (CDDP), etoposide (ETP) and irinotecan (CPT-11) and their combinations on GEP-NEC using three small-cell GEP-NEC cell lines (pancreatic NEC, A99; esophageal NEC, TYUC-1; duodenum NEC, TCC-NECT-2). In vitro studies were conducted using cell viability assays. In vivo experiments were conducted in mice inoculated with A99
or TCC-NECT-2 and treated with no agent, CDDP, CDDP+ETP (EP) or CDDP+CPT-11 (IP). TYUC-1 was the most susceptible to all agents, whereas A99 was refractory. Classical isobolograms showed synergism in both the EP and IP combinations for the three cell lines. In the TCC-NECT-2 mouse model, the IP regimen showed a significant antitumor effect, and CDDP alone showed a marginal effect compared to the control. In contrast, no effect was detected in the A99 model, probably because A99 was established from a metastatic tumor after chemotherapy with EP. Gene expression analysis of the ATP-binding cassette transporters revealed that ATP binding cassette subfamily B member1 (ABCB1) was conspicuously expressed in A99, and ABCB1 and ATP binding cassette subfamily C member2 (ABCC2) were deficient in TYUC-1, which might explain a part of different CDDP susceptibilities between cell lines. These preclinical models indicate that CDDP is a key agent, and IP regimen might be a reasonable option, although its efficacy is moderate. Our data on the platinum-based regimen will be useful as reference information in developing new agents for GEP-NEC.