J Nutr Health Aging. 2019;23(1):89-95. doi: 10.1007/s12603-018-1124-3.
Dietary factors associated with the development of physical frailty in community-dwelling older adults.
OBJECTIVES: Nutrition plays an important role in the development of frailty, and
the present study examined the association between energy, macronutrient, and food intake and the development of physical frailty.
DESIGN: Prospective cohort study.
SETTING: The National Institute for Longevity Sciences - Longitudinal Study of Aging (NILS-LSA), a community-based study.
PARTICIPANTS: Participants included 166 men and 117 women aged 65-86 years without frailty components at baseline who participated in both the sixth (2008-2010) and seventh (2010-2012) waves of the NILS-LSA.
MEASUREMENTS: Physical frailty was assessed using the modified criteria established by the Cardiovascular Health Study (2001). All participants were classified as "robust (number of frailty components: 0)," "prefrail (1-2)," or "frail (3-5)." Energy, macronutrient, and food intake was calculated based on 3-day dietary records during the sixth wave. Associations between dietary intake
per day and the development of frailty 2 years later (from robust at the sixth wave to prefrail/frail at the seventh wave) were examined using multiple logistic regression analysis after adjusting for sex, baseline age, and other covariables.
RESULTS: Among the participants included, 36% were classified as prefrail/frail 2 years later. Higher energy [1 standard deviation (SD), odds ratio (95% confidence interval): 362 kcal, 0.68 (0.49-0.94)], protein [16 g, 0.72 (0.53-0.97)], and fat [15 g, 0.69 (0.52-0.92)] intake was negatively associated with frailty development. Higher meat [38 g, 0.68 (0.51-0.92)] and dairy [114 g, 0.73 (0.55-0.96)] intake was negatively associated with frailty development. Higher energy intake was negatively associated with the development of weakness (low grip strength) and low activity, while higher protein intake was negatively associated with the development of low activity.
CONCLUSION: Increased consumption of meat and dairy products may provide sufficient protein and fat necessary for achieving higher energy intake, thereby
effectively preventing physical frailty among older Japanese individuals.