Environ Health Prev Med. 2019 Apr 23;24(1):24. doi: 10.1186/s12199-019-0778-8.

Hemoglobin A1c and 10-year information processing speed in Japanese community dwellers.


BACKGROUND: Hyperglycemia is believed to be a risk factor for cognitive decline,
but the longitudinal relationship between hyperglycemia and cognitive decline in
the Japanese population is unclear. The present study aimed to clarify the association between blood glucose levels and information processing ability in middle-aged and older adults.
METHODS: The subjects were 866 men and 815 women aged 40-79 years not taking medication for diabetes who participated in the first study wave (1997-2000) and
then participated at least once in the subsequent six study waves (2000-2012) of
the National Institute for Longevity Sciences-Longitudinal Study of Aging, Japan. Hemoglobin A1c (HbA1c) levels were categorized into four groups (< 5.6, 5.6 to < 6.0, 6.0 to < 6.5, ≥ 6.5%), and a mixed-effects model was used to evaluate the
effects of the HbA1c level (four groups) on repeated measures of information processing speed. The models also included baseline age, body mass index, ethanol intake, smoking status, educational level, family income, and history of stroke,
hypertension, heart disease, and dyslipidemia as covariates.
RESULTS: Mean (standard deviation) HbA1c and follow-up time in participants were
5.2 (0.5) % and 10.0 (3.6) years, respectively. A linear mixed model showed that
the main effect of the four HbA1c groups on information processing ability was not significant in either men or women, but the interaction of HbA1c and time with information processing speed in the higher HbA1c level groups (≥ 6.5% group
in men, 6.0 to < 6.5% and ≥ 6.5% groups in women) was significant compared to the lower HbA1c level (< 5.6%) group (P < 0.05). When the slope of information processing speed by HbA1c level at baseline was examined, the slope of information processing speed in the higher HbA1c level (≥ 6.5%) group was higher
than in the lower HbA1c level (< 5.6%) group, both in men (- 0.31/year) and in women (- 0.30/year), as well as in women with an HbA1c level of 6.0 to < 6.5% (- 0.40/year).
CONCLUSIONS: Higher baseline HbA1c was associated with greater subsequent decline in information processing ability in Japanese community dwellers, even with the pre-clinical HbA1c level (6.0 to < 6.5%) in women. The results suggest that good
glycemic control or prevention of hyperglycemia may contribute to maintaining information processing ability.



PMID:  31014232