Int J Neuropsychopharmacol. 2020 Jul 16;23(11):713-20. doi: 10.1093/ijnp/pyaa049. Online ahead of print.
Increased matrix metalloproteinases in cerebrospinal fluids of patients with major depressive disorder and schizophrenia.
BACKGROUND: Chronic inflammation of the brain has a pivotal role in the pathophysiology of major depressive disorder (MDD) and schizophrenia (SCZ).
Matrix metalloproteinases (MMPs) are extracellular proteases involved in pro-inflammatory processes and interact with IL-6, which is increased in the cerebrospinal fluid (CSF) of patients with MDD and SCZ. However, MMPs in the CSF in patients with MDD and SCZ remains unclear. Therefore, we compared MMPs in the CSF of patients with MDD and SCZ to those of healthy controls (HC).
METHODS: Japanese patients were diagnosed with DSM-IV-TR and clinical symptoms were assessed with the Hamilton Rating Scale for Depression for MDD and the Positive and Negative Syndrome Scale for SCZ. CSF was obtained from MDD (n=90), SCZ (n=86) and from age- and sex-matched HC (n=106). The levels of MMPs in CSF were measured with multiplex bead-based immunoassay.
RESULTS: The levels of MMP-2 in CSF were higher in both MDD and SCZ than HC and were positively correlated with clinical symptomatic scores in MDD, but not in SCZ. Regardless of diagnosis, the levels of MMP-2, -7 and -10 were positively correlated with each other, and the levels of MMP-7 and -10 were higher in MDD, but not in SCZ, compared to HC.
CONCLUSION: Increased CSF levels of MMP-2 in MDD and SCZ may be associated with brain inflammation. State-dependent alteration of MMP-2 and activation of cascades involving MMP-2, -7, and -10 appeared to have a role in the pathophysiology of MDD.